Reference No: 13-PR-04-DJ-RO,TR
A project co-financed by the European Commission
Lifelong Learning Programme - Comenius Regio Partnerships

Lifelong Learning Programme

Project Overview » Career guidance in school

ROMANIA and TURKEY - Guidance and counselling in early childhood and school education



Academic guidance

Academic guidance

In most cases, educational guidance during primary education is ensured by the class teacher working closely with the children’s parents and the school psychologist. The National Curriculum includes the curricular area Counselling and Guidance, dedicated to the educational guidance of pupils. In the case of primary education, the curriculum frameworks stipulate the possibility to allocate, within the school-based curriculum, an hour per week for counselling and guidance. There is also a central curricula offer for this curricular area, approved by an Order of the Minister of Education.

At secondary level, the educational/ vocational guidance is ensured through the National Curriculum and delivered by the class teacher, together with pupils’ parents and the school counsellor. The National Curriculum includes the curricular area Counselling and Guidance. The curriculum frameworks allocate one hour per week to this curricular area, for all phases at secondary level (gimnaziu, liceu, arts and trades school, additional year).

For this curricular area there is also a central offer with curricula approved by an order of the minister of education which establish for each phase (gimnaziu, liceu, arts and trades school, additional year) the educational objectives and contents, providing at the same time methodological suggestions which guide the activity of teachers in order to reach the objectives/ to develop the specific skills in this particular curricular area.

The County School Inspectorates organise a 5-day fair known as The Fair of Your Chances every year. The schools display all the information on their current educational offer (enrolment quota, specialisation of studies, school-based curriculum, etc.) as well as on the quality of the education they provide (educational conditions, resources, internal and external efficiency, relationships established with industry, etc.). School management teams and class teachers facilitate and organize visits for their pupils to the fair in support of their educational guidance.

Student guidance and counselling in vocational and technical education is ensured through:

· The subject Vocational Guidance and Counselling, for the technological path, grades 11 and 12 – direct qualification route, and grades 12 and 13 – progressive qualification route;

· Offices for psychological and pedagogical assistance, organised within schools with more than 800 students and subordinated to the County Centres of Psychological and Pedagogical Assistance (Schools with less than 800 students access psychological and pedagogical assistance services provided by other schools.);

· County centres of educational assistance and resources, organised in each county;

· Class teachers’ activity, guided by the regulations in force, in relation with parents and representatives of education institutions and local businesses;

· Students’ practical training, conducted in partnership with local businesses, where a major role is played by tutors and students’ direct relation with employees.

The Ministry of National Education (known also as MoNE) conducts educational activities on a central level in the Republic of Turkey. Each level of education is organised by their own General Directorate. Pre-School, Primary and Lower Secondary, Upper Secondary and Higher Education. Pre-school education is carried out by kindergartens. Primary and lower secondary education consists of eight years of compulsory education. Upper secondary education is not compulsory, but the vast majority of the population participates and have different options such as vocational and art schools. Higher Education is provided by state and private universities. Higher Education Council is responsible for the organization and management of higher education institutions. Adult education is a priority and takes many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to self-directed and e-learning.

Educational Guidance and Support in Turkish educational system is provided by the Ministry of National Education at all levels of education including early childhood education, primary and secondary education. As for the higher education, Council of Higher Education regulates the provisions regarding educational guidance and support at tertiary level.

The content and context of the guidance vary in accordance with the needs and nature of the given student in early childhood education, primary and secondary education. Generally, all of the schools are appointed a teacher specialized on psychological and guidance by the Ministry. Working as a consultant and a monitor in the school, these teachers provide psychological consultancy for those who need certain affective support. Psychological consultancy and guidance teachers work as a therapist, guide and a carrier planner for the students of upper secondary education.

Career education and guidance are provided in the classroom and in various forms of guidance counselling, in conjunction with the general information. It is also common that pupils undergo so called ‘work practice’ at different work places a couple of weeks towards the end of their compulsory schooling. Most schools have specially trained career and guidance counsellors. Although career education and guidance is the responsibility of all school personnel, the career and guidance counsellors have specialist knowledge that plays a central role in career education and guidance. In order to be employed as a career counsellor in the public school system the applicant must have an education that is intended for such work.

Although career education and guidance is the responsibility of all school personnel, the career and guidance counsellors have specialist knowledge that plays a central role in career education and guidance. In order to be employed as a career counsellor in the public school system the applicant must have an education that is intended for such work. Career and guidance counsellor education is offered at Higher Education Institutions and lasts for three years. Every pupil in compulsory school is entitled to at least three general health examinations evenly distributed during the period of schooling. The first examination should take place during the first school year. In between the general health examinations the pupils should be offered sight and hearing tests and other special health examinations. There should be a school medical officer and school nurse for health care. The entitled school healthcare is free of charge. Special educational support is provided within mainstream education as well as in education for pupils with severe intellectual impairments special schools the upper secondary school for pupils with impaired hearing upper secondary schools for pupils with severe physical disabilities and education for adults with severe intellectual impairments.There are also possibilities for municipalities to organise special needs education in accordance with their specific local situation. There are grant-aided independent schools for pupils with severe intellectual impairments, but they are few and the range of courses rather limited.

In earlychildhood education, academic counseling is heavily based on the observation of the students talents and types of multiple intelligences, identifying the areas in which the pupil display academic succes and sharing these information with the families for the future academic choices and tendencies of the pupil. Also the pupils with a special talent may be lead to certain educational institutions that offer additional education for the talented students in their future education.

Psychological counselling

Psychological counseling

Children attending pre-primary education benefit from free medical and psychological assistance in consulting rooms in schools or in general state hospitals.
Health care of children in pre-primary education is ensured either through schools’ medical units (existing mostly in urban areas) or through public medical units and is free of charge (including medication). Kindergartens with prolonged and weekly programme employ nurses to ensure the first-hand health care of the children.

Health care of children in primary education is ensured either through schools’ medical units (existing mostly in urban areas) or through public medical units and is free of charge (including medication).

The Centers for psycho-pedagogical assistance – Centre Judeţene de Asistenţă Psihopedagogică are organised at the level of each county/ Bucharest as Pre-tertiary education complementary units subordinated to the County School Inspectorates/ School Inspectorate of Bucharest.

In each school with more than 800 pupils psycho-pedagogical assistance units can be organised, according to the existing resources and needs. Schools with less than 800 pupils apply to a psycho-pedagogical assistance unit organised in another school. Psycho-pedagogical assistance centers – Centre Judeţene de Asistenţă Psihopedagogică and units ensure through individual and collective activities the psycho-pedagogical monitoring and counselling of the pupils as well as guidance of the teachers and pupils’ parents. In cooperation with the schools and the local community the psycho-pedagogical assistance centers and units also organise school and professional guidance of the pupils, information and documentation activities, etc.

School-family collaboration is ensured in the early childhood education so that the desired behaviours can be developed in the child is of importance. To this end, administrators and teachers gather at the beginning of the educational year and resolve how they can involve families in the program.

The teacher takes pains to pay at least one home visit to each child's house every term. During home visits, families can be shown how routine works can be used as learning experiences. Plays the child can play with the family or some activities can be planned. The child and his/her family can be observed in home environment. The families are advised about what can be done at school and at home, the active participating of the families in planning and practice is ensured (Okul Öncesi Eğitim Programı).

That a psychologist is available in pre-primary education institutions is essential for the purpose of the resolving problems that might occur. In the event that there is not a school psychologist, provincial/sub-provincial facilities are made use of for psychological health services.

The psychologist takes the measures necessary for the healthy psychological development of the children. S/he ensures that the necessary tests are conducted and records are kept. S/he provides assistance with the education offered by participating in the integrated education of the children in need of special needs education, if any (Regulation on Pre-school Education InstitutionsOkul Öncesi Eğitim Kurumları Yönetmeliği, Article 28).

Career guidance

Career guidance

The tutor teacher has the responsibility to plan, organise and accomplish the activities for the counselling and guidance classes – based on the existing guiding lines, on consultations with the parents and the pupils and according to the pupils’ age and particularities. Mostly for pupils attending final grades of a given education level, the activities accomplished during the counselling and guidance classes include meetings and debates with representatives of educational institutions and local employers, visits to various institutions, application and interpretation of personality and aptitude tests, etc.

Education institutions send on regular basis detailed information on their educational offer, usually through their teachers/professors. On these occasions the schools managements organise meetings with all the pupils attending a given final grade. Specifically for T/VET, the practical training of the pupils performed on a contract basis at different local employers has an important role in their vocational guidance. During the practical training pupils get in touch directly with the employees, acknowledge the work conditions provided understand the requirements of the work and the requested level of initial training get first-hand information on the income and on other details. The efficiency of this guidance is proved by the fact that an important number of the T/VET graduates get their first job in the same firms where they accomplished their practical training. Training-employment and school-industry relations are also ensured through the consultative bodies working at the level of the school and of the county.

Although there are no regulations available concerning the career choices or guidance of the early childhood education pupils, the teachers generally advise parents about the academic achievements or limited areas of their children so that parents can take conscious actions in career choices of their children in the future educational phases.